The Treaty: Informal Agreement between the governments of Japan and the United States that limited Japanese immigration to the United States to non-workers, workers who were already settled in the United States and members of their families The gentlemen`s agreement of 1907 (紳協, Nichibei Shinshi Kyyaku) was an informal agreement between the United States of America and the Japanese Empire that would not allow the United States to States. The aim was to ease tensions between the two Pacific states. The agreement was never ratified by the U.S. Congress and was replaced by the Immigration Act of 1924. The increase in Japanese immigration, which was to replace some marginalized Chinese agricultural workers, has met with concerted opposition in California. To appease Californians and avoid an open break with Japan`s emerging world power, President Theodore Roosevelt negotiated the diplomatic agreement in which the Japanese government took on the responsibility of drastically limiting Japanese immigration, especially that of workers, so that Japanese children could continue to attend integrated schools on the West Coast. However, family migration could continue, as Japanese men, with sufficient savings, could bring wives through arranged marriages (“pictured wives”), their parents and minor children. As a result, the Japanese-American population was more gender-friendly than other Asian-American communities, and continued to grow through natural increases, which led to increased pressure to end immigration and further reduce residents` rights. Japan was prepared to limit immigration to the United States, but was seriously injured by San Francisco`s discriminatory law, which specifically targeted its people. President Roosevelt, who wanted to maintain good relations with Japan as a pole opposed to Russian expansion in the Far East, intervened. While the U.S. ambassador reassured the Japanese government, Roosevelt summoned the mayor and the San Francisco school board to the White House in February 1907 and convinced him to end segregation and promised that the federal government itself would address the issue of immigration. On February 24, the gentlemen`s agreement was reached with Japan in the form of a Japanese memo, in which it was agreed to deny passports to workers wishing to enter the United States and to recognize the right of the United States to exclude Japanese immigrants with passports initially issued to other countries.
March 13, 1907 followed the formal withdrawal of the San Francisco School Board`s decision. A final Japanese note, dated February 18, 1908, made the gentlemen`s agreement fully effective. The agreement was replaced by the Immigration Exclusion Act of 1924. The gentlemen`s agreement forced the repeal of the school board. In exchange, the Japanese government agreed not to issue new passports to Japanese nationals who wished to work in the United States. However, the parents, children and wives of Japanese workers already in the United States could still immigrate to the United States. Critics of the agreement also noted that Japanese workers could still immigrate freely to Hawaii, and the “bildbraut” industry developed later, where Japanese male workers in the United States could choose a Japanese bride from the former country solely on the basis of posted photos.