On 4 November 2019, the United States notified the depositary of its withdrawal from the Agreement, which will take effect exactly one year after that date.  The Paris Agreement is an agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that addresses the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions from 2020 on or after 2020. The agreement aims to address the global threat of climate change by maintaining a global temperature increase well below 2 degrees Celsius this century and continuing efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.  Both the EU and its Member States are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. A strong preference was expressed for the EU and its 28 Member States to deposit their instruments of ratification simultaneously to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to obligations belonging exclusively to each other, and some feared that there would be disagreement on each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target. Just like the British vote to leave the EU, the Paris Pact could be delayed.  However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement and the EU deposited its instruments of ratification on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  Negotiations on a new system were halted by differences of opinion on how to implement it in order to avoid double counting. This is when a nation counts on a reduction in emissions on its own climate promise, but also sells an emission credit so that another country can charge them against its emissions target. With ratification by the European Union, the agreement obtained enough parts to enter into force on 4 November 2016. On June 1, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the agreement.
 Pursuant to Article 28, the agreement that entered into force in the United States on November 4, 2016 is the earliest possible date for the effective withdrawal of the United States on November 4, 2020. If it had decided to withdraw by leaving the UNFCCC, it could be immediately denounced (the UNFCCC entered into force for the United States in 1994) and enter into force a year later. On August 7, 2017, the Trump administration officially transmitted to the United Nations a communication according to which the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it has the legal right to do so.  The invitation to resign could only be presented after the agreement entered into force for the United States for three years in 2019.   “It`s very exciting to see what Cuba is doing,” says Carl Bruch, an attorney at the Environmental Law Institute in Washington DC. . . .